Mr Khan has told Lord Andrew Adonis, chair of the National Infrastructure Commission, that all parts of the UK will need to see an increase in transport and infrastructure investment from the government.
The National Infrastructure Commission provides impartial, expert advice to the government on long-term infrastructure.
Earlier this summer, the commission published a list of the 12 key infrastructure decisions that need to be taken for projects to go ahead.
These include the next stage of HS2, HS3 and Crossrail 2.
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Mr Khan has welcomed this approach and is ensuring that Transport for London works with other cities to share best practice and develop innovative solutions to common challenges.
Mr Khan said: “Increasing investment in new infrastructure is essential to supporting new growth and jobs in the decades ahead, particularly as Britain leaves the European Union.
“I will continue to put the case to government that good quality, modern infrastructure, including new roads, railways and state-of-the-art broadband and mobile connectivity, is crucial if this country is to remain a global economic powerhouse.
“London grinding to a halt is not in the nation’s interests, and nor is it in the interests of London that the North of England’s transport network continues to be woefully inadequate.”