The package includes a new Docklands Light Railway crossing at Gallions Reach, which will help support the development of approximately 17,000 new homes across Newham and the Royal Borough of Greenwich.
The mayor also announced plans to accelerate the procedure for a pedestrian and cycle bridge linking Rotherhithe and Canary Wharf and proposals to make Silvertown Tunnel more eco-friendly.
“It’s no secret that London has long needed more river crossings in the east,” Mr Khan explained.
“With new homes and economic growth across east London, it becomes even more important that we deliver new greener transport links that allow Londoners to cross the river quickly and more easily.
"But we don’t want these to have a damaging impact on our environment, and that’s why I’ve reviewed and improved plans for Silvertown Tunnel and why I’m pushing forward with crossings that encourage public transport, walking and cycling.”
The funding for these crossings is expected to come from third-party developer contributions and via existing community infrastructure levies.
The new proposals will see Silvertown Tunnel become one of London’s low-emission bus zones, as well as introducing a bus concession for local residents.
Transport for London (TfL) will also explore the possibility of providing a bespoke bus specifically designed to help carry cyclists and their bikes through the tunnel.
TfL predicts the plans could be delivered within the next five to 10 years.
Alex Williams, acting managing director of planning at TfL, added: “The mayor’s new vision for river crossings in east London is firmly rooted in supporting growth and providing better public transport links for all.
“We will now work hard to develop the designs for these new crossings, as well as identify potential funding opportunities, to allow them to be constructed more quickly.”