The fund will be available from 2018 and housing minister Kevin Stewart has confirmed it will be set up following a successful review of the pilot in the Highlands.
Additionally, the Scottish government has welcomed applications to a challenge fund, which will support trial projects that will assist the expansion of the custom and self-build sector.
Mr Stewart said: “We know many people seeking to build a bespoke home – which is tailored to their family needs – can find it tough getting the right advice and securing funding.
“A pilot in the Highlands is proving to be really successful and now others in communities across Scotland will be able to apply for a share of this £4m investment later next year.
“There was considerable interest in the fund following the launch of the pilot in the Highlands, which is why we have made the decision to make an early announcement on the national roll out.
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“This will give potential applicants the time to investigate housing plots and obtain the necessary permissions, so they can be ready to apply to the fund when it opens.
“In addition to this, our custom and self-build challenge fund is now open to all to support projects that will help develop ways to better respond to the needs of people undertaking a custom or self-build home.”
John Laing, chairperson of the Highlands Small Communities Housing Trust, added: “Since its launch in 2016, the Highland self-build loan fund has generated tremendous interest both in the Highland area and more importantly across Scotland as a whole.
“I am delighted to see the launch of the Scotland-wide fund, which will enable many more families to achieve their dreams of a home of their own.”
The self-build loan fund will be open to applicants nationwide from autumn 2018 and will support people over the next three years.